18 de setembro: Dia da Família Militar

A designação de D. Rosa da Fonseca como Patrono da Família Militar foi aprovada pela Portaria do Comandante do Exército nº 650, de 10 de junho de 2016.

O Departamento de Educação e Cultura do Exército (DECEx) e o Comando Militar do Leste (CML) realizaram uma formatura em homenagem à Patrono da Família Militar, em 19 de setembro de 2016, sendo lido, naquela ocasião, um texto alusivo, do qual destaca-se o seguinte trecho:

“Diante dos desafios de uma época na qual valores se perdem, referências faltam e princípios e convicções são relativizados a cada instante, estamos hoje reunidos, no salão nobre do Palácio Duque de Caxias, para instituir D. Rosa Maria Paulina da Fonseca como a Patrono da Família Militar e consagrar a data do seu nascimento à Família Militar.”

Diferentemente de outras protagonistas da história militar brasileira, como Maria Quitéria, Ana Néri e Anita Garibaldi, D. Rosa da Fonseca representa o estereótipo da mulher que é geradora e formadora de vidas notáveis que contribuíram, de maneira significativa, para o nosso país, por meio do serviço à Pátria brasileira.

Sua trajetória inicia-se em 18 de setembro de 1802, data de seu nascimento em Alagoas. Casou-se com o Major Manoel Mendes da Fonseca, militar que prestara destacados serviços ao Império e que veio a falecer em 24 de agosto de 1859, quando moravam no Rio de Janeiro. Dessa união, tiveram dez filhos, sendo duas mulheres, Emília Rosa e Amélia Rosa, e oito homens, Hermes Ernesto, Severiano Martins, Manuel Deodoro, Pedro Paulino, Hyppólito, João Severiano e Afonso Aurélio. Estes abraçaram a carreira das Armas, ocupando posições de destaque na vida militar, na política e na administração pública brasileira.

Quando eclodiu a Guerra da Tríplice Aliança, sete de seus filhos seguiram para os campos de batalha. Permaneceu junto a ela seu filho Pedro Paulino, Tenente reformado do Exército, literato e estatístico, futuro governador de Alagoas e senador federal por esse estado.

Na cruenta Batalha de Curuzu, entre 1º e 3 de setembro de 1866, tombou em combate seu filho mais jovem, Afonso Aurélio, aos 21 anos de idade, Alferes do 34º Batalhão de Voluntários da Pátria, atingido quando galgava as muralhas daquela fortificação.

Poucos dias depois, em 22 de setembro de 1866, durante a sangrenta Batalha de Curupaity, outro de seus filhos, o Capitão de Infantaria Hyppólito, perdeu a vida heroicamente.

Em 6 de dezembro de 1868, na célebre Batalha de Itororó, as “Termópilas paraguaias”, a primeira das batalhas da “Dezembrada”, outro de seus filhos sucumbiu ante o fogo inimigo, o Major de Infantaria Eduardo Emiliano.

Nessa mesma batalha, dois outros filhos, Hermes e Deodoro, foram gravemente feridos, sendo que este último recebera três ferimentos por tiros de fuzil.

Conta-se que, durante as comemorações pela vitória em Itororó, ao ser informada da morte de Eduardo e da situação de Hermes e Deodoro, teria dito: “Sei o que houve, talvez até Deodoro esteja morto. Mas hoje é dia de gala pela vitória; amanhã, chorarei a morte deles”. Depois, recolheu-se a seus aposentos, onde chorou por três dias o destino de seus filhos.

Dentre seus filhos que regressaram vivos da Guerra da Tríplice Aliança, destacaram-se especialmente o Marechal Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca, Proclamador da República, Chefe do Governo Provisório e Primeiro Presidente Constitucional da República dos Estados Unidos do Brasil, e o eminente médico militar, General de Brigada João Severiano da Fonseca, instituído, em 1962, Patrono do Serviço de Saúde do Exército Brasileiro.

Seu neto, o Marechal Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca, filho de Hermes Ernesto, foi o oitavo Presidente da República, exercendo seu mandato entre 1910 e 1914.

Todas as vezes em que D. Rosa da Fonseca recebia notícias das vitórias do Exército Brasileiro nos campos de batalha, ela mandava ornamentar a fachada de sua casa com bandeiras e flores e, à noite, fazia iluminar com lanternas de vidro toda a frente da sua residência.

Nos momentos de tristeza e angústia pela vida dos seus filhos, que incentivara a participar da guerra, consolava sua filha e noras e, referindo-se a eles, assim expressava-se: “A vitória que a Pátria alcança, e que todos foram defender, vale muito mais que a vida dos meus filhos”.

Aos 70 anos de idade, faleceu na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, à época, capital do Império.

Ao instituir o dia 18 de setembro, data natalícia de Dona Rosa da Fonseca, a Matriarca Exemplar, como o Dia da Família Militar, o Exército Brasileiro presta a devida homenagem à figura insigne de Rosa da Fonseca, reconhecendo a importância de seu extremado amor a seu marido e filhos, emoldurado por seu espírito de sacrifício pela Pátria brasileira, valores que a definem como símbolo da Família Militar.

Fonte: Exército do Brasil

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